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高考英语语法总结_高考英语语法复习指南

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  (一)考纲要求

  考纲规定,冠词考查基本用法,包括定冠词与不定冠词,不定冠词a与an的区别;不用冠词的情况;习语中的冠词;特指与泛指等,语法复习冠 词。

  (二)命题导向

  冠词规则的灵活运用是高考命题的一个热点,几乎每年高考题的单项选择或完形填空都有涉及冠词的题目,不定冠词和定冠词的一些特殊用法,习惯用法及不用冠词的情况是高考重点考查的知识点。

  (三)基本用法

  当代语法把冠词分为不定冠词、定冠词和零冠词(即不用冠词)三种。冠词是一种虚词,起限定作用,是最主要最典型的限定词,放在名词(或名词化的形容词分词)前面,说明其所指的人或物。

  1、定冠词的基本用法:

  ① 表示上文提到过的人或事物。如:I have bought a book. The book is very useful.

  ② 用于说话人与听话人心中都有数的人或事物。如:Close the window, please.

  ③ 用于表示世界上独一无二的事物前。如:the sun, the moon, the earth, the world等。

  ④ 用于表示方位的名词之前。如:the east, the right.

  ⑤ 用于序数词或形容词的最高级之前。如:the first, the tallest.

  ⑥ 用于形容词之前,使其名词化。如:the sick, the wounded.

  ⑦ 用于由普通名词构成的专有名词之前。如:the United States, the United Nation.

  ⑧ 用于江河、海洋、海峡、山脉、群岛、建筑物等的名词之前。如:the Changjiang River, the East Lake.

  ⑨ 用于复数姓氏之前,表示"夫妇"或"全家"。如:The Smiths

  ⑩ 用于乐器的名词前。如:play the piano; play the violin.

  ⑾ 发明物。如:The compass was invented in China.

  ⑿ 年代名词前。如:He lived in the countryside in the 1970s.

  ⒀ 固定词组中。如:in the morning(afternoon, evening), on the other hand , at the same time

  2、不定冠词的基本用法:

  ① 泛指一个。如:There is a book on the table.

  ② 指人或事物的某一种类。如:His father is a driver. Longjing is a wonderful tea.

  ③ 指某一个人或事物,但不具体说明。如:My sister was saved by a PLA man in the fire.

  ④ 用于某一些表示重量、长度、时间等单位前,表示"每一"。如:We have meals three times a day.(我们一天吃三餐。)

  ⑤ 表示同样的。如:They are of an age.(他们是同岁。)

  ⑥ 表数量,相当于one,但语意较弱。如:There is a pen and two books on the desk.

  ⑦ 使抽象名词具体化。如:The little girl is a help to her mother. (a hand译"帮手")

  ⑧ 固定搭配。如:as a matter of fact , in a hurry, in a word

  3、不用冠词的情况:

  ① 表示总称的复数名词之前。如:Children love cartoons.(儿童喜欢卡通影片。)

  ② 不含普通名词的专有名词前。如:We are studying English.

  ③ 名词前有指示代词、物主代词、不定代词或名词所有格修饰时。如:I like this picture; I do not have any money; As time went on, Einstein's theory proved to be correct.

  ④ 季节、月份、星期等名词前,一般不用冠词。如:She likes spring most.

  ⑤ 呼语前不用冠词。如:What shall I do next, Mother?

  ⑥ 三餐饭前不用冠词。如:What did you have for lunch?

  ⑦ 节假日前不用冠词。如:People give gifts to each other on Christmas Day.

  ⑧ 球类和棋类运动的名称前不用冠词。如:She is fond of playing basketball.

  ⑨ 在一些成对出现的短语中不用冠词。如:arm in arm(手挽手); hand in hand(手牵手); side by side(肩对肩); day and day(日日夜夜); young and old(老老少少); from door to door(挨门挨户); from beginning to end(从头到尾); from morning till night(从早到晚)等。

  练习(一)、冠 词

  1. In America, ____ car is ____ popular means of transportation(交通设施).

  A. the, theB. a, theC. the, /D. the, a

  2. ---- What happened?---- They left in such ____ hurry that they forgot to lock ____ door.

  A. a, aB. a, theC. /, theD. /, a

  3. There were two small rooms in the house, ____ smaller of which served as ____ kitchen.

  A. a, theB. the, aC. the, theD. a, a

  4. I ordered ____ book some time ago. ____ book has arrived.

  A. a, TheB. the, AC. a, AD. /, The

  5. Mr Smith is ____ European and his wife is ____ American.

  A. an, anB. a, aC. a, anD. an, a

  6. Lesson 10 is ____ most difficult lesson, but it isn't ____ most difficult lesson in Book One.

  A. a, aB. a, theC. the, theD. the, a

  7. My sister works in a factory. She goes home once ____ month. A. aB. anC. theD. every

  8. He was absent because he had caught ____.

  A. heavy a coldB. the heavy coldC. a heavy cold D. heavy cold

  9. ____ water is ____ liquid.A. The, aB. A, aC. /, /D. /, a

  10. In winter ____ people often hang up wet clothes near ____ fire.

  A. /, /B. a, aC. /, aD. the, a

  11. He has tried twice, and the captain asks him to have ____ third try.

  A. aB. theC. anotherD. other

  12. He was a top student in the class, he often got ____ in English.

  A. firstB. a firstC. secondD. the second

  13. ____ horse is ____ useful animal.A. The, theB. The, aC. The, anD. /, a

  14. Tom left Shanghai in ____.

  A. the summer 1995B. summer 1995C. 1995 the summerD. the summer of 1995

  15. ____ children here live ____ most happy life.A. The, theB. The, a C. The, /D. /, the

  16. The soldier died during ____ World War I.A. theB. the firstC. /D. a

  17. In ____ Marx began to learn Russian.

  A. a 1870B. 1870sC. the year of 1870D. the 1870s

  18. Alice is ____ of the two girls.A. tallerB. the tallC. more tallD. the taller

  19. ---- Can your sister play ____?---- No, but she can play ____.

  A. the tennis, the pianoB. tennis, pianoC. the tennis, pianoD. tennis, the piano

  20. The introduction is always in ____ of a book.

  A. frontB. the frontC. a front D. instead

  21. She touched her daughter gently ____ shoulder.

  A. in herB. on herC. in theD. on the

  22. Both ____ wounded and ____ sick were sent to safety.

  A. /, /B. the, theC. /, theD. the, /

  23. ____ doctors and ____ nurses should care for their patients.

  A. The, theB. /, /C. The, /D. /, the

  24. Tell us the story as ____ Mother told you. A. aB. theC. anD. /

  25. Do you know how long ____ has lived on the earth?

  A. manB. the manC. a manD. men

  26. The man was once thrown into ____ prison for robbing the bank. A. a B. an C. the D./

  27. ____ Mount Tai is in the east of China.A. AB. TheC. /D. That

  28. I like ____ history. I am studying ____ history of China.

  A. the, /B. /, theC. a, /D. /, a<

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