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高分子材料专业英语部分课后答案_高分子材料专业英语部分课后答案

来源:热门快讯 时间:2021-03-04 点击: 推荐访问:高分子专业英语翻译

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  篇一:高分子材料专业英语第二版曹同玉等编化学工业出版部分课后答案

  unit1

  1。并不是所有的聚合物都是由一个重复单元链接在一起而形成的。在另一个极端的情形中,蛋白质分子是由n个氨基酸重复单元链接在一起形成的聚酰胺。尽管在这个例子中,我们也许仍然把n称为聚合度,但是没有意义,因为一个氨基酸单元也许是在蛋白质中找到的20多个分子中的任意一个。在这种情况下,一般是分子量本身而不是聚合度被用来描述这个分子。当知道了特定的氨基酸分子的实际含量,它们的序列正是生物化学家和分子生物学家特别感兴趣的地方。

  2。(1)(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

  (2)a simple compound whose molecules can join together to form polymers

  (3)a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers

  3 结构数据 反应式 压强液相 实验室 固体

  分子温度测量化合物 电气 Unit2

  1,第一单元第四段

  2。 乙烯分子带有一个双键,为一种烯烃,它可以通过连锁聚合大量地制造聚乙烯,目前,聚乙烯已经广泛应用于许多技术领域和人们的日常生活中,成为一种不可缺少的材料。

  Ethylene molecule with a double bond, as a kind of olefins, it can make chain polymerization polyethylene, at present, polyethylene has been widely used in many fields of technology and People's Daily life, become a kind of indispensable materials。

  Unit3

  1聚合速率在实验上可以通过测定体系的任一性质的变化而确定,如密度、折射率、黏度、或者吸光性能。密度的测量是这些技术中最准确最敏感的。对许多单体的聚合来说,密度增加了20%—25%。在实际操作中,聚合体系的体积是通过在膨胀计中进行反应测定的。它被专门设计构造了毛细导管,在里面可以对微小体积变化进行高精确度测量。通过膨胀计技术探测聚合过程中万分之几的变化是很常见的。

  Unti4

  2Synthesizing polymer palys a more and more important role in a variety of fields as time goes by。 Polymers are usually produced from monomers by means of polyaddition and polycondensation。 Polyolefin and vinylpolymer are leaders in terms of the world's consumption,polyethylene and polyprogylene belong to the former,while polyvinylchloride and polystyrene belong to the latter。 Polymers can be widely used as plastic 、rubber、fiber、coating、binding agent and so on。

  篇二:高分子材料专业英语第二版(曹同玉,冯连芳,张菊华)课后例句翻译

  Unit1

  1。The essentially the ‘giantness’of the size of the polymer molecule that makes its behavior different from that of a commonly known chemical compound such as benzene。

  实质上,正是由于聚乙烯的巨大的分子尺寸才使其性能不同于像苯这样的一般化合物(的性能)。

  2。The globules of polyvinyl alcohol firstly absorb water,swell and get distorbed in shape and after a long time go into solution

  。聚乙烯醇颗粒首先吸水溶胀,发生变形,经过很长的时间以后,(聚乙烯醇分子)进入到溶液中。

  3。Another peculiarity is that ,in water,polyvinyl alcohol never retains its original powdery nature as the excess sodium chloride does in a saturated salt solution。

  另一个特点是,在水中聚乙烯醇不会像过量的氯化钠在饱和盐溶液中那样能保持其初始的粉末状态。

  UNIT2

  用自由基型引发剂或离子型引发剂引发连锁反应可以很清楚的进行观察。

  2。Such reactions occur through the initial addition of a monomer molecule to an initiator radical or an initiator ion,by which the active state is transferred from the added monomer。

  这样的反应是通过单体分子首先加成到引发剂自由基或引发剂离子上而进行的,靠这些活性中心由引发剂转移到被加成的单体上。

  UNIT3

  The net effect of this is that monomer molecules are consumed rapidly without any large increase in molecular weight。 酯化的结果是单体分子很快地被消耗掉,而分子量却没有多少增加。

  2。 The esterification reaction occurs anywhere in the monomer matrix where two monomer molecules collide, and once the ester has formed, it, too, can react further by virtue of its still—reactive hydroxyl or carboxyl groups。 酯化反应出现在单体本体中两个单体分子相碰撞的位置,且酯一旦形成,依靠酯上仍有活性的羟基或羧基还可以进一步进行反应。

  3。 But each polymer molecule that forms still has reactive end groups; hence the polymerization reaction will continue in a stepwise fashion, with each esterification of monomers。

  但形成的每一种聚合物分子还有反应活性的端基;因此,聚合反应将以逐步的方式继续进行,其每一步酯化反应的反应速率和反应机理均与初始单体的酯化作用相同。

  Unit4

  1。 With ionic polymerization there is no compulsory chain termination through

  recombination ,because the growing chain can not react with each other。

  对于离子型聚合来说,不存在通过再结合反应而进行的强迫链终止,因而生长链之间不能发生链终止反应。

  2。chain termination takes place only through impurities ,or through the addition of certain compounds such as water, alcohols,acids, amines, or oxygen,and in general through compounds which can react with polymerizing ions under the formation of neutral compound or inactive ionic species。

  链终止反应仅仅通过杂质而发生,或者说通过某些像水,醇,酸,胺或者氧这样的化合物进

  行加成反应而发生,且一般来说(链终止反应)可通过这样的化合物来进行,这种化合物在中性聚合物或没有聚合活性的离子型聚合物生成的过程中可以和活性聚合物例子进行反应。

  3。if the initiators are only partly dissociated ,the initiator reactions is an equilibrium reaction ,where reaction in one direction gives rise to chain initiation and in the other direction to chain termination。

  如果引发剂仅为部分的解离,引发反应即为一个平衡反应,再出现平衡反映的场合,在一个方向上进行链引发反应,而在另一个方向则进行链终止反应。

  4。To this group belong the also the so called Alfin catalysts,which are a mixture of sodium isopropylate,allylsodium,and sodium chloride。

  所谓的Aflin催化剂就是属于这一类,这类催化剂是异丙醇钠,烯丙基那,和氯化钠的混合物。

  六

  5。Thus strength of polymer does not begin to develop until a minimum molecular weight of about 5000—10000 is achieved。

  因此,直到最小相对分子质量增大到大约5000—10000以后聚合物的强度才开始显现出来。

  6。In most instances,there is some molecular weight range in which a given polymer property will be optimum for a particular application 。

  在大多数情况下,对于某特定的应用来说,这种聚合物存在着某一分子量范围,在这个范围之内其性能是最好的。

  7。When one speaks of the molecular weight of a polymer ,one means something quite different from that which applies to small—sized compounds

  当人们谈到聚合物分子量的时候,她所指的是和低分子化合物的分子量完全不同的另一回事。

  8。Different average molecular weights are obtained because the properties being measured arebiased differently sized polymer molecules in a polymer sample。

  对同一聚合物得到不同的平均分子量,因为对所测得的性质对试样中的不同尺寸的聚合物分子有不同的偏差。

  七

  9。This may be all that happens if ,for example, the polymer—polymer intermolecular forces are high because of crosslinking ,crystallinity ,or strong hydrogen bonding 。

  例如,如果因交联,结晶和很强的氢键形成和娘的分子间作用力,(聚合物的溶解过程)有可能就停留在这一阶段。

  10。In turn ,the presence o absence of solubility as conditions (such as the nature of the solvent ,or the temperature)are varied can give much information about the polymer。

  当条件(溶剂的本质或温度)变化的时候,有无溶解性又可以许多关于这种聚合物的信息。

  11。As specified in the literature ,the arrangement of the polymer chain differing b reason of rotation about single bonds are termed conformations。

  正如在文献中所定义的那样,由于围绕着单键的旋转而导致的聚合物链不同的空间排布叫做构象。

  12。The random coil arises from the relative freedom of rotation associated with the chain bonds of most polymer and the formidably large number of conformations accessible to the molecule。 无规线团一方面是由于聚合物链上的键自由旋转而产生的,另一方面时候由于聚合物分子连可达到巨大的构象数而产生的。

  Unit8

  1 X—ray and electron diffraction patterns often show the sharp features typical of three—dimensionally ordered, crystalline materials as well as the diffuse features characteristic of liquids。

  X 射线图像和电子衍射图样常常会显示出三维有序晶体材料的图样所具有的边缘清晰的特征,也会显示出液体的图像所具有的边缘模糊的特征。

  2 Polymer molecules are considered to pass through several different crystalline regions with crystallites being formed when segments from different polymer chains are precisely aligned together and undergo crystallization。

  当来自不同聚合物链的链段精确的排列在一起结晶时,认为伴随着微晶的生成,聚合物分子会通过几个不同的晶区。

  3 Semi—crystalline polymers are considered by advocates of the folded—chain theory to be chain—folded crystals with varying amount of defects。

  摺叠链理论的支持者们认为半晶聚合物为具有不同数量缺陷的折叠链晶体。

  4 Polymers with medium to low crystallinity can often be advantageously treated by the fringed—micelle concept as two—phase systems composed of crystallinites inbedded in uncrystallized, amorphous polymer。

  具有从中等到较低结晶度的聚合物常常适合用于樱状微束理论作为两相体系来处理,这些体系是由微晶包埋在非晶的无定型聚合物中而构成的。

  Unit 9

  1 As is found in all phases of polymer chemistry, there are many exceptions to this categorization。 正如在高分子化学各个部分都可以看到的那样,对这种分类方法有很多例外情况。

  2 when the molecular chains are ‘straightened out’ or stretched by a process of extension, they do not have sufficient attraction for each other to maintain the oriented state and will retrace once the force is released。

  当通过一个拉伸过程将分子链拉直的时候分子链彼此之间没有足够的相互吸引来保持其定向状态,作用力一旦解除,将发生收缩。

  3 Therefore, a potential fiber polymer will not become a fiber unless subjected to a drawing process, i。e。 , a process resulting in a high degree of intermolecular orientation。

  因此,可以制成纤维的聚合物将不成为纤维,除非经过一个抽丝拉伸过程,即一个可以形成分子间高度取向的过程。

  4 It must be borne in mind that, with the advent of Ziegler—Natta mechanisms and new techniques to improve and extend crystallinity, and the closeness of packing of chains, many older data given should be critically considered in relation to the stereoregular and crystalline structure。

  必须牢记,随着Z—N 机理的出现,以及随着提高结晶度和提高链的堆砌密度的新方法的出现,对许多过去已得到的关于空间结构和晶体结构旧的资料,应当批判地接受。 Unit 10

  1 Depending on the temperature, the molecules of low molecular weight substance either move apart as a whole or do not move at all, i。e。 , there is a definite temperature(melting point Tm) below which the molecules do not move and above which they do move。

  根据温度,低分子量的物质要么整个分子移开,要么根本不运动,有一个特定温度(熔点Tm)在低于这一温度时分子不运动,而在高于这一温度时分子则在运动。

  2 The local segments, where mobility is already activated, correspond to the liquid state, while

  the molecule as a whole, where mobility is forbidden, is in solid state。

  在一条分子链上某些流动性已经被激活额局部链段相应这流体状态,而没有被完全激活的整个分子则处于固体状态。

  3 Under the influence of an applied stress, it exhibits properties of a viscous fluid as well as an elastic solid and undergoes what is called viscoelastic deformation。

  在外加应力的作用下,聚合材料既显示出黏性液体的性质,也显示出弹性固体的性质,并发生所谓的黏弹形变。

  4 The Tg value along with the Tm value gives an indication of the temperature region at which a polymeric material transforms from a rigid solid to a soft viscous state。

  Tg 值和Tm 值表明了一个温度范围,在这个范围内聚合材料会由刚性转变成为柔性的黏流态。

  Unit 11

  1 Their usefulness is related both to the functional groups and to the nature of the polymers whose characteristic properties depend mainly on the extraordinarily large size of the molecules。 他们(功能聚合物)之所以具有使用价值不仅与所带的官能团有关,而且与由巨大的分子尺寸所决定的聚合物的特性有关。

  2 The attachment of functional groups to a polymer is frequently the first step towards the preparation of a functional polymer for a specific use。

  把官能团连接到聚合物上常常是制备某种特殊用途的聚合物的重要的一步。

  3 A required active functional group can be introduced onto a polymeric support chain (1) by incorporation during the synthesis of the support itself through polymerization or copolymerization of monomers containing the desired functional groups, (2) by chemical modification of a non—functionalized performed support matrix and by a combination of (1) and

  (2)。

  (1)在合成主链聚合物时通过带有所需官能团的单体的均聚或共聚,使聚合物带上官能团;

  (2)将先制成的未功能化的主链聚合物进行化学改性;(3)将(1)和(2)两种方法结合起来。

  4 Interest in the filed is being enhanced due to the possibility of creating systems that combine the unique properties of conventional active moieties and those of high molecular weight polymers。

  由于能够制造出兼有活性官能团特性和高分子量的聚合物性能的功能聚合物,所以人们对(功能聚合物)这个领域的兴趣与日俱增。

  篇三:高分子材料工程专业英语翻译

  Unit 1 What are polymers

  What are polymersFor one thing, they are complex and giant molecules a

  nd are different from low molecular weight compounds like, say, common salt。

  什么是高聚物?首先,他们是合成物和大分子,而且不同于低分子化合物,譬如说普通的盐。

  To contrast the difference, the molecular weight of common salt is only 58。5, while that of a polymer can be as high as several hundred thousand, even more than thousand thousands。

  与低分子化合物不同的是,普通盐的分子量仅仅是58。5,而高聚物的分子量高于105,甚至大于106。

  These big molecules or ‘macro—molecules’ are made up of much smaller molecules, can be of one or more chemical compounds。

  这些大分子或“高分子”由许多小分子组成。小分子相互结合形成大分子,大分子能够是一种或多种化合物。

  To illustrate, imagine that a set of rings has the same size and is made of the same material。 When these things are interlinked, the chain formed can be considered as representing a polymer from molecules of the same compound。

  举例说明,想象一组大小相同并由相同的材料制成的环。当这些环相互连接起来,可以把形成的链看成是具有同种化合物组成的高聚物。

  Alternatively, individual rings could be of different sizes and materials, and interlinked to represent a polymer from molecules of different compounds。

  另一方面,环可以大小不同、材料不同, 相连接后形成具有不同化合物组成的聚合物。 This interlinking of many units has given the polymer its name, poly meaning ‘many’ and mer meaning ‘part’ (in Greek)。

  聚合物的名称来自于许多单元相连接,poly意味着“多、聚、重复”,mer意味着“链节、基体”(希腊语中)。

  As an example, a gaseous compound called butadiene, with a molecular weight of 54, combines nearly 4000 times and gives a polymer known as polybutadiene (a synthetic rubber) with about 200 000molecular weight。

  例如:气态化合物丁二烯的分子量为54,连接4000次可得到分子量大约为200000的聚丁二烯(合成橡胶)高聚物。

  The low molecular weight compounds from which the polymers form are known as monomers。 The picture is simply as follows:

  形成高聚物的低分子化合物称为单体。下面简单地描述一下形成过程:

  butadiene + butadiene + + butadiene——→polybutadiene(4 000 time)

  丁二烯 +丁二烯++丁二烯——→聚丁二烯(4000次)

  One can thus see how a substance (monomer) with as small a molecule weight as 54 grow to become a giant molecule (polymer) of (54×4 000≈)200 000 molecular weight。

  能够知道分子量仅为54的小分子物质(单体)如何逐渐形成分子量为200000的大分子(高聚物)。

  It is essentially the “giantness” of the size of the polymer molecule that makes its behavior (different from that of a commonly known chemical compound such as benzene。)

  实质上正是由于聚合物的巨大分子尺寸才使其性能不同于像苯这样的一般化合物(的性能)

  Solid benzene, for instance, melts to become liquid benzene at 5。5℃ and , on further heating, boils into gaseous benzene。

  例如固态苯在5。5℃熔融成液态苯,进一步加热,煮沸成气态苯。

  As against this well—defined behavior of a simple chemical compound, a polymer like polyethylene does not melt sharply at one particular temperature into clean liquid。

  与这类简单化合物明确的行为相比,像聚乙烯这样的聚合物不能在某一特定的温度快速地熔融成纯净的液体。

  Instead, it becomes increasingly softer and, ultimately, turns into a very viscous, tacky molten mass。 Further heating of this hot, viscous, molten polymer does convert it into various gases but it is no longer polyethylene。 (Fig。 1。1) 。

  而聚合物变得越来越软,最终变成十分粘稠的聚合物熔融体。将这种热而粘稠的聚合物熔融体进一步加热,它会转变成不同气体,但它不再是聚乙烯(如图1。1)

  Another striking difference with respect to the behavior of a polymer and that of a low molecular weight compound concerns the dissolution process。

  聚合物行为和低分子量化合物另一不同的行为为溶解过程。

  Let us take, for example, sodium chloride and add it slowly to fixed quantity of water。 The salt, which represents a low molecular weight compound, dissolves in water up to a point (called saturation point) but, thereafter, any further quantity added does not go into solution but settles at the bottom and just remains there as solid。

  例如,将氯化钠慢慢地添加到定量的水中。盐作为一种低分子量化合物,在水中溶解直到某一点(叫饱和点),但进一步添加, 盐不进入溶液中却沉到底部而保持原有的固体状态

  The viscosity of the saturated salt solution is not very much different from that of water。 But if we take a polymer instead, say, polyvinyl alcohol, and add it to a fixed quantity of water, the polymer does not go into solution immediately。

  饱和盐溶液的粘度与水的粘度接近。但是,如果我们用聚合物,如聚乙烯醇添加到定量水中,聚合物不是马上进入到溶液中。

  The globules of polyvinyl alcohol first absorb water, swell and get distorted in shape and after a long time go into solution。

  聚乙烯醇颗粒首先吸水溶胀,发生变形,经过很长时间后,(聚乙烯醇分子)进入到溶液中。

  Also, we can add a very large quantity of the polymer to the same quantity of water without the saturation point ever being reached。

  同样地,我们可以将大量的聚合物加入到同样量的水中,不存在饱和点。

  As more and more quantity of polymer is added to water, the time taken for the dissolution of the polymer obviously increases and the mix ultimately assumes a soft, dough—like consistency。

  将越来越多的聚合物加入水中,认为聚合物溶解的时间明显地增加,最终呈现柔软像面团一样粘稠的混合物。

  Another peculiarity is that, in water, polyvinyl alcohol never retains its original powdery nature [as the excess sodium chloride does] [in a saturated salt solution]。

  另一个特点是,在水中聚乙烯醇不会像过量的氯化钠在饱和盐溶液中那样能保持其初始的粉末状态。

  In conclusion, we can say that (1) the long time taken by polyvinyl alcohol for dissolution,

  (2) the absence of a saturation point, and (3) the increase in the viscosity are all characteristics of a typical polymer being dissolved in a solvent and these characteristics are attributed mainly to the large molecular size of the polymer。

  总之,我们可以讲(1)聚乙烯醇的溶解需要很长时间,(2)不存在饱和点,(3)粘度的增加是聚合物溶于溶液中的典型特性,这些特性主要归因于聚合物大分子的尺寸。 The behavior of a low molecular weight compound and that of a polymer on dissolution are illustrated in Fig。1。2。

  Many olefinic and vinyl unsaturated compounds are able to form chain—like macromolecules through elimination of the double bond, a phenomenon first recognized by Staudinger。 Diolefins polymerize in the same manner, however, only one of the two double bonds is eliminated。

  Staudinger首先发现许多烯烃和不饱和烯烃通过打开双键可以形成链式大分子。二烯烃以同样的方式聚合,但仅消除两个双键中的一个。

  Such reactions occur through the initial addition of a monomer molecule to an initiator radical or an initiator ion, by which the active state is transferred from the initiator to the added monomer。

  这类反应是通过单体分子首先加成到引发剂自由基或引发剂离子上而进行的,靠这些反应活性中心由引发剂转移到被加成的单体上。

  In the same way by means of a chain reaction, one monomer molecule after the other is added (2000~20000 monomers per second) until the active state is terminated through a different type of reaction。

  单体分子通过链式反应以同样的方式一个接一个地加上(每秒2000~20000个单体)直到活性中心通过不同的反应方式终止。

  The polymerization is a chain reaction in two ways: because of the reaction kinetic and because as a reaction product one obtains a chain molecule。 The length of the chain molecule is proportional to the kinetic chain length。

  聚合反应成为链式反应的两种原因:反应动力学和作为链式反应产物分子。链分子的长度与动力学链长成正比。

  One can summarize the process as follow (R。 is equal to the initiator radical):

  链式反应可以概括为以下过程(R·相当与引发剂自由基):略

  One thus obtains polyvinylchloride from vinylchloride, or polystyrene from styrene, or polyethylene from ethylene, etc。

  因而通过上述过程由氯乙烯得到聚氯乙烯,或由苯乙烯获得聚苯乙烯,或乙烯获得聚乙烯,等等。

  The length of the chain molecules, measured by means of the degree of polymerization, can be varied over a large range through selection of suitable reaction conditions。 分子链长通过聚合度测量,可以通过选择适宜的反应条件大为改变

  Usually, with commercially prepared and utilized polymers, the degree of polymerization lies in the range of 1000 to 5000, but in many cases it can be below 500 and over 10000。 商业制备和使用的聚合物,聚合度通常在1000~5000范围内,但在许多情况下可低于500或高于10000。

  This should not be interpreted to mean that all molecules of a certain polymeric material consist of 500, or 1000, or 5000 monomer units。 In almost all cases, the polymeric material consists of a mixture of polymer molecules of different degrees of polymerization。

  这不应该把聚合物材料所有的分子理解为由500,或1000,或5000个单体单元组成。在几乎所有的情况下,聚合物材料由不同聚合度的聚合物分子的混合物组成。

  Polymerization, a chain reaction, occurs according to the same mechanism as the well—known chlorine—hydrogen reaction and the decomposition of phosegene。

  链式聚合反应的机理与众所周知的氯(气)—氢(气)反应和光气的分解机理相同。 The initiation reaction, which is the activation process of the double bond, can be brought about by heating, irradiation, ultrasonics, or initiators。 The initiation of the chain reaction can be observed most clearly with radical or ionic initiators。

  通过双键活化的引发剂反应,可以通过热、辐射、超声波或引发剂产生。可以很清楚地进行研究用自由基型或离子型引发剂引发的链式反应。

  These are energy—rich compounds which can add suitable unsaturated compounds (monomers) and maintain the activated radical or ionic state so that further monomer molecules can be added in the same manner。

  这些是高能态的化合物,它们能够加成不饱和化合物(单体)并保持自由基或离子活性中心 以致单体可以以同样的方式进一步加成。

  For the individual steps of the growth reaction one needs only a relatively small activation

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